Hidrotreatment removes many contaminants of oil, being the Hydrogen an essential reactive on this process. The Hydrogen may break the heavy oil molecules in lighter fuels (cracking) and of more commercial value and, besides improving the fuel quality and the octane rating, also reduces the environmental contamination.
Using Oxygen for the atmosphere enrichment of the catalytic cracking unit is a profitable option and the advantages are: increase of regenerator capacity, increase of conversion process for a determined feed, easier handling when higher coke formation occurs and easier feed composition changes handling.
The majority of the gas that comes from refineries, natural gas and the gassing process units, besides other compounds, contains sulfuric acid (H2S), having to be treated in sulfur recovering units. The application of Oxygen on the enrichment of CLAUS PROCESS allows a production increase through the process capacity increase, the sulfur content increase on process load and environmental reasons.
Nitrogen, being an inert gas, may displace the flammable gases from a container, reducing the risk of oxidation, fire or explosion. Oxygen and moisture may be removed from the reactors. The process of filling and emptying the reactor with Nitrogen is fully controllable. The risk of fire and / or explosion is eliminated since there is no use of pumps. Furthermore, the use of Nitrogen ensures that any reaction will occur, with the stored substance or the substance to store.
Nitrogen is used as booster and protector on the transport closed system on the product transference process by the pressure of two containers, without the need to pump, being a practical method. Therefore, the electrical energy costs are reduced, with the substance protection to be transferred.
After the purge, in order to preserve the product purity and avoid the risk of explosion, it is necessary to maintain the combustible product isolated from atmospheric Oxygen. To do so, it must be kept an inert and uniform atmosphere above the combustible substance, adding Nitrogen, while the tank is filled or emptied. The moist air present in the empty space of the tank is replaced with nitrogen of high purity.
Inertization is achieved through the use of an inert gas such as Nitrogen, which forms a protective layer, preventing the reaction of products. The flammable gases release, on the oil refining process, requires the use of a non-reactive gas to eliminate the risk of combustion.
In potential problems of oxidation or corrosion, Nitrogen is used for drying operations, replacing the hot air.
Oil refineries, chemical and petrochemical industries use a wide range of pure gases and special mixtures of gases, on the combustion process control, on the regular calibration of the analyzers usage that require straight standards, on the monitoring of Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide and Hydrocarbons emissions and on the explosion limit alarms and leaking detectors.